This stuff is all from the old wiki and was never put on a public namespace, it needs to be revised.
The Republic of Wayland is a constitutional republic of city-states that have signed irrevocable treaties with each other in order to form a centralized federal government. While the federal government itself is an indirect democracy that guarantees substantial rights and benefits to its citizens, citizens of the city-states of Wayland may not necessarily be citizens of the federal government, and thus enjoy far fewer protections. Member states are given considerable autonomy and may not be democratic at all. For example, the Kingdom of Weston has been an absolute monarchy for hundreds of years.
The Republic of Wayland is the last functioning nation and by the start of the first book has been in the mists of several bloody civil wars. The republic was born out of the Rosewater Renaissance, embracing human ideals of democracy and a re-discovery of classical works which painted an idealized relationship between predator and prey. The republic gained strength from this bond between predator and prey and eventually consumed the entire continent of Wayland.
The federal government of Wayland is composed of three branches under a codified constitution known as the Compact. The federal government of Wayland offers its own citizenship to senators, judges, and other federal workers. Among these benefits are expanded protection for freedom of speech and association, immunity from being hunted (as well as freedom of movement and limited diplomatic immunity in each city-state), and a pretty bitching health-coverage plan. Due to this, many animals aspire to become government works and gain federal citizenship to have better lives for themselves and their families.
I would like to go into more planning of the government, spending more time figuring out which flaws actually led to the constitutional crisis and the civil war that takes place in the story.
The Compact is codified constitution of the Republic of Wayland, based upon an alliance of predator and prey. It lays out the structure federalism in Wayland and may be amended with a two-thirds majority in congress (total votes in all chambers). It guarantees many fundamental freedoms to all citizens of the federal government and more minimal freedoms to citizens of the member states, these minimum freedoms include being able to vote in federal elections.
The legislative branch of the federal government is composed of a tri-chamber congress. Every six years the member-states of Wayland are allowed to appoint representatives to both the House of Predators and the House of Prey. Only obligatory predators or obligatory prey are allowed in their respective houses, forcing each member-state to find at least one member of the non-majority class to be entitled to full representation, fostering cooperation between predator and prey. However the member-states are not necessarily democratic and have wide discretion in whom they appoint. For example, while the Commonwealth of Tairon appoints their senators based on popular election, in the Kingdom of Weston representatives are chosen solely on the whims of the royal family.
The legislative branch has the sole authority to raise funding or declare war and impeach members of the other branches (including their own). Each house retains some autonomy and has different parliamentary procedures amended at their discretion. For example while filibusters are allowed (and commonly employed) in the House of Predators they have been banned for the past century in the House of Prey.
House of Predators
The upper house of congress is controlled by obligate-carnivores who have original jurisdiction regarding bills concerning warfare and certain territorial matters. They tend not to introduce bills and are always the last ones to receive it, acting as the final veto against bills that have not been amended with adequate compromises in the lower two houses. They have a six year term with no mandatory term limit and are thus seen as more 'stable' and 'congenial' than the other houses, often being less influenced by the political rhetoric of the current age.
House of Prey
The lower house of congress is controlled by obligate-herbivores who have original jurisdiction regarding bills related to changes in hunting procedure or quotas. They are the first house that receives a bill (although if they veto they still may be overruled by the upper houses). Bills are typically heavily amended in the House of Prey through inter-house special committees. They have a six year term with a mandatory term limit of four years, the term limit having been introduced to hinder predator-controlled states from submitting the same 'sockpuppet' herbivore representatives.
House of Commons
The central house of congress is not appointed by the city-states but is directly elected by the people from each state, with each state sending several representatives based on population. Every citizen of a city-state (even prisoners) are guaranteed the right to vote as well as hear the policies of potential candidates, even in states that normally curtain public freedom of the press. Because of their elected positions the House of Commons is almost entirely composed of omnivores which stand the best chance at being elected by either predator or prey. There was significant controversy during the campaign of the fox Li'Ren when he publicly stated that not all foxes are obligate predators and claimed to have not eaten meat in over a decade.
The House of Commons is usually the 'swing' chamber where controversial legislation may gain enough votes to pass after being vetoed in one of the house houses. It is elected via party affiliation and gerrymandering is non-existent. The House of Commons has original jurisdiction when introducing bills regarding increases in taxation and modifications to inter-house procedures.
Office of National Senator
While not a chamber of the legislative branch per-say, the Office of the National Senator has significant sway over the on-goings of Congress as a whole. Once of the head of the executive branch has reached their term-limit, they have an option of joining the office as a 'National Senator', bringing their executive expertise to the legislative division. While National Senators typically do not participate in floor-debates, they serve an administrative function, acting as enforcers of parliamentary procedure, forming special committees, and leading investigations into claims of misconduct in the other houses.
National Senators may not filibuster or veto bills, but may pass one vote each for any introduced legislation. Critically however, the can cast their vote as a member of any house and thus are seen as a key-component for tipping the odds of passing controversial legislation. They have no term limits and do not stand for re-election, but like every member of congress can be impeached for misconduct.
After fears of excessive growth of the office of National Senator (due to the long lifespans of its inhabitants), a constitutional amendment was passed limiting the office to the fifty most recent führers.
The executive branch is headed by the Führer, who acts as head of state (but not commander-in-chief), of the republic. The führer is both appointed by and accountable to the legislature and can be removed from their office by a simple majority vote of no-confidence by Congress as a whole. As the head of the executive branch they are responsible for the enforcement of laws, filling executive departments, and advising the legislative branch. They have a term of three years in office with a mandatory term limit of four terms, after which they are eligible to join the office of National Senator.
The führer has no veto over proposed legislative but can have significant autonomy via their emergency powers, executive orders (including to the auxiliary branch), and issuing pardons or benefits via titles of nobility.
Executive officers / judges that serve the federal government directly, they have qualified immunity and basically serve as secret police.
The military branch consists of the commander-in-chief of Wayland's armed forces known as the Lord of War, who is elected directly by the citizens of the federal government (but not non-citizen members of each city-state). While only congress can declare war or provide a budget for the military, the Lord of War has the autonomy to pick and choose the rules of engagement, or not engage at all. They can only be removed by the legislature via a three-fifths majority.
The military is not legally allowed to operate domestically, quelling civil unrest is the responsibility of the Militia under the authority of the auxiliary branch.